BIOMASS

biomasse dmg

 

DMG builds turn-keyrenewable energy plant using organic materials, agro-forest residues and agricolture products, all in full respect to the environment thanks to the usage of technologies and sustainable products.

DMG takes care of all steps necessary to authorize, build and exercise biomass power plants.

The services of DMG includes:

  • Site evaluation and feasibility study

  • Procurement of the materials

  • Authorization process

  • Financial Evaluation

  • Preliminary and Executive project planning

  • Plant costruction 

  • Operation and Maintenance of the the plant

Biomass is a renewable energy source because biomass can re-grow over a relatively short period of time. Through the process of photosynthesis, chlorophyll in plants captures the sun's energy by converting carbon dioxide from the air and water from the ground into carbohydrates—complex compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 

When these carbohydrates are burned, they turn back into carbon dioxide and water and release the energy they captured from the sun. In this way, biomass functions as a sort of natural battery for storing solar energy. As long as biomass is produced sustainably—meeting current needs without diminishing resources or the land’s capacity to re-grow biomass and recapture carbon—the battery will last indefinitely and provide sources of low-carbon energy. When done well, biomass energy brings numerous environmental benefits—particularly reducing many kinds of air pollution and net carbon emissions. Biomass can be grown and harvested in ways that protect soil quality, avoid erosion, and maintain wildlife habitat. However, the environmental benefits of biomass depend on developing beneficial biomass resources and avoiding harmful resources, which having policies that can distinguish between them.

In addition to its many environmental benefits, beneficial biomass offers economic and energy security benefits.  By growing our fuels at home, we reduce the need to import fossil fuels from other states and nations, and reduce our expenses and exposure to disruptions in that supply. Many states that import coal from other states or countries could instead use local biomass resources.

With increasing biomass development, farmers and forest owners gain valuable new markets for their crop residues, new energy crops and forest residues—and we could substantially reduce our global warming emissions.

 

Types of Beneficial Biomass

Most scientists believe that a wide range of biomass resources are “beneficial” because their use will clearly reduce overall carbon emissions and provide other benefits. Among other resources, beneficial biomass includes

  1. energy crops that don’t compete with food crops for land

  2. portions of crop residues such as wheat straw or corn stover

  3. sustainably-harvested wood and forest residues, and

  4. clean municipal and industrial wastes.[3]

Energy Crops
Energy crops can be grown on farms in potentially large quantities and in ways that don’t displace or otherwise reduce food production, such as by growing them on marginal lands or pastures or as double crops that fit into rotations with food crops. Trees and grasses that are native to a region often require fewer synthetic inputs and pose less risk of disruption to agro-ecosystems.

Crop Residues 
Depending on soils and slope, a certain fraction of crop residues should be left in the field to maintain cover against erosion and to recycle nutrients, but in most cases some fraction of crop residues can be collected for renewable energy in a sustainable manner. Food processing also produces many usable residues.

Manure
Manure from livestock and poultry contains valuable nutrients and, with appropriate management, should be an integral part of soil fertility management. Where appropriate, some manure can be converted to renewable energy through anaerobic digesters, combustion or gasification. The anaerobic digesters produce biogas which can either directly displace natural gas or propane, or be burned to generate biopower. For instance, dairy farms that convert cow manure with methane digesters to produce biogas can use the biogas in three ways (or in some combination of these end uses).

Woody biomass
Bark, sawdust and other byproducts of milling timber and making paper are currently the largest source of biomass-based heat and renewable electricity; commonly, lumber, pulp, and paper mills use them for both heat and power. In addition, shavings produced during the manufacture of wood products and organic sludge (or "liquor") from pulp and paper mills are biomass resources.  Some of these “mill residues” could be available for additional generation of renewable electricity.

Forest residues
It is important to leave some tree tops and branches, and even dead standing trees, on-site after forest harvests. Coarse woody debris left on the soil surface cycles nutrients, especially from leaves, limbs and tops, reduces erosion and provides habitat for invertebrates.

 

Forest treatments
Many forest managers see new biomass markets providing opportunities to improve forest stands.
[9] Where traditional paper and timber markets require trees to meet diameter and quality specifications, biomass markets will pay for otherwise unmarketable materials, including dead, damaged and small-diameter trees. Income from selling biomass can pay for or partially offset the cost of forest management treatments needed to remove invasive species, release valuable understory trees, or reduce the threat of fires, though the science behind fire reduction is very complex and site specific.

 

Short-rotation trees
Under the right circumstances, there may be a role for short-rotation tree plantations dedicated to energy production. Such plantations could either be re-planted or “coppiced.” (Coppicing is the practice of cutting certain species close to the ground and letting them re-grow.) Coppicing allows trees to be harvested every three to eight years for 20 or 30 years before replanting. 

Urban wastes
People generate biomass wastes in many forms, including "urban wood waste" (such as tree trimmings, shipping pallets and clean, untreated leftover construction wood), the clean, biodegradable portion of garbage (paper that wouldn’t be recycled, food, yard waste, etc.).  In addition, methane can be captured from landfills or produced in the operation of sewage treatment plants and used for heat and power, reducing air pollution and emissions of global warming gases.

Converting Biomass to Biopower

There are a number of technological options available to make use of a wide variety of biomass types as a renewable energy source. Conversion technologies may release the energy directly, in the form of heat or electricity, or may convert it to another form, such as liquid biofuel or combustible biogas. While for some classes of biomass resource there may be a number of usage options, for others there may be only one appropriate technology.

Thermal conversion

These are processes in which heat is the dominant mechanism to convert the biomass into another chemical form. The basic alternatives of combustion, torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification are separated principally by the extent to which the chemical reactions involved are allowed to proceed (mainly controlled by the availability of oxygen and conversion temperature).

There are a number of other less common, more experimental or proprietary thermal processes that may offer benefits such as hydrothermal upgrading (HTU) and hydroprocessing. Some have been developed for use on high moisture content biomass, including aqueous slurries, and allow them to be converted into more convenient forms. Some of the applications of thermal conversion are combined heat and power (CHP) and co-firing. In a typical biomass power plant, efficiencies range from 20–27%

Chemical conversion

A range of chemical processes may be used to convert biomass into other forms, such as to produce a fuel that is more conveniently used, transported or stored, or to exploit some property of the process itself.

Biochemical convention

As biomass is a natural material, many highly efficient biochemical processes have developed in nature to break down the molecules of which biomass is composed, and many of these biochemical conversion processes can be harnessed.

Biochemical conversion makes use of the enzymes of bacteria and other micro-organisms to break down biomass. In most cases micro-organisms are used to perform the conversion process: anaerobic digestion, fermentation and composting. Other chemical processes such as converting straight and waste vegetable oils into biodiesel is transesterification.[12] Another way of breaking down biomass is by breaking down the carbohydrates and simple sugars to make alcohol. However, this process has not been perfected yet. Scientists are still researching the effects of converting biomass.